Finding the best Women's flat is the hardest part of your shopping. It is a tough job to find flats pair that combines style, comfort, and versatility.
We need the flats that mold our foot shape over time, cushioned insoles, ventilated support, and a pull tab for easy slip-on. But choosing the best fit is still a big challenge for women because women are more curious about their choices.
Women's footwear styles and trends have a lot to do with specific regions and also the women living in those places. As far as footwear inspiration goes, every major city has its own strengths and trends. New York is ideal for indie designers; London is cool and quirky; Milan is known for its luxe leather offerings, and Paris is pretty much over-the-top always. Still, there are some trends that tie these cities together. Let's take a look at the women's sandal styles in 2020. Some of these may be a lot more popular during specific periods of the year. For instance, the open-toe designs would be a lot more commonplace during the warmer months. Comfort would also be prioritized this season, with platforms and flats making a big comeback.
The following is a low-down on the women's sandal types that would be trending in 2020.
Gladiator sandals have been around since ages; they are strappy footwear with a T-bar flowing down their fronts. The design draws massive inspiration from the shoe that the Romans wore. A primary reason these sandals have been relevant for so long and trendy every season is the way they seamlessly marry style and comfort.
These sandals are great to wear during vacations and complement typical holiday outfits such as maxi dresses. They also go well with office wear or tailored trousers if you would like your feet to feel free and open during summer. A floral skirt or denim shorts also look great with gladiator sandals. If you are wearing gladiators, make sure they are the highlight feature of your entire look. They shouldn't get overpowered by any other accessory you might wear. If the sandals are not standing out or grabbing attention, then you're not wearing them right.
Usually made of either brown or black leather, the additional straps on these gladiators are not just a design element but also provide your feet extra support, which makes them ideal for walking long distances. The straps could climb as high as just below your knee or could stop at the ankle level. All gladiator sandals are not made the same. Therefore, make sure the pair you buy supports your feet well. A cushioning sole, proper fitting, and adjustable straps are things you must consider. Ideal gladiator sandal materials are leather, neoprene, memory foam, cork, etc.
Arch support is an essential factor, too, because improper support could mean your arches getting strained. It's recommended you look for gladiators that have a contoured arch so that they offer some level of cushioning to your arches. Also, the level of traction and stability the pair provides is essential. If the gladiators you purchased lack either of these two attributes, you might end up injuring your feet wearing them.
Even women who cannot care any less about their footwear assemblage would invariably have a pair of flip flops in their shoe collection. The discreet look and functionality of flip flops make them so very ubiquitous. The simple and straightforward design makes it easy to put them on. Flip flops are also referred to as toe-post sandals. Flip flops are perfect to be worn in the garden, around the pool, or at the beach.
Flip flops work great at the beach since you could take them off easily and let your feet come in direct contact with the sand. Moreover, any sand stuck to flip flops can be quickly and easily washed away at the end of your beach escapades. Flip flops are one among the classic sandal styles that you can pair with a bikini and shorts for the beach look.
Flip flops are usually made of synthetic materials, making them waterproof and which explains why they are so beach- and pool-friendly. If you would like to wear flip flops in a not so casual and laidback environment such as the beach, make sure the strap is a bit more substantial in terms of thickness or width. There are very few women's sandals that complement shorts or a sundress as useful and as effortlessly as a pair of flip flops.
Slingbacks have undergone a renaissance of sorts in the last few years, emerging as one among the most popular women's footwear styles. Major credit for this resurgence goes to the different fashion houses that have revived the custom. Typically, a slingback has a small kitten heel and a strap that traverses behind your ankle or heel. Unlike an ankle-strap, slingback straps do not entirely encircle your ankle.
Slingbacks usually come in a range of styles. They can be casual or dressy; have distinguishable heels or have none whatsoever; heel types could be thin like the ones that come with stilettos, or thick like wedges; they could be either open-toe or closed. A slingback strap is typically adjusted through an elastic segment or a buckle, letting you slip your feet in without having to manually adjust the buckle or strap, while still keeping your feet in the sandals reasonably securely. The clasp could be made of plastic, metal, or even stone.
If you're considering rocking a pair of slingbacks, make sure you pair the footwear with laid-back, modern outfits so that they don't look "grandmotherly" – which is, unfortunately, the image that has been created for slingbacks over the years. A bold pair of slingbacks would also go well with evening cocktail dresses.
Also called slide sandals, sliders are traditionally not viewed as "cool" or "trendy." However, the fashion and women's footwear industries have this tendency to add a unique twist to an otherwise mundane item and make it look cool all of a sudden. Sliders have been receiving such attention and love in the recent past.
Sliders are taking flip-flops' simplicity and adding some design elements to the mix. You may come across "gladiator" sliders, platform sliders, embellished ones, furry sliders, etc. These different designs may look unique, but they still belong to the family of "sliders". A pair of simple sliders are ideal casualwear for the feet. The statement pieces, on the other hand, could be teamed up with summery dresses and playsuits for some chic styling.
Casual sliders usually have a massaging footbed, an adjustable strap for convenience, and a lightweight midsole. The strap helps with securing your foot to the sandal. These casual sandals are ideal for soothing aching and tired feet. Sliders can be dressed down or dressed up and can be paired with pretty much everything from chic leather minis to boyfriend jeans.
Wedges or wedge sandals are summer staples that could be worn throughout the year. Wedges are quite widespread and will increase in popularity during 2020 as they can be effortlessly dressed up and dressed down. For instance, an elegant pair of wedges would complement your outfit for a friend's summer wedding. Wedges are comfortable enough for office use too.
Unlike stilettos, these would not sink into the grass. They are, in fact, for ladies who fancy the extra height a stiletto offers but find their narrow heels uncomfortable. For a subtler look, go for a wedge of one to two inches. A four-inch wedge heel is ideal if you want to make a style statement. Thanks to their design, even the four-inch or higher wedges feel comfortable. Just make sure the extremely high-heel wedges are projected the way they should be. In other words, they should be your outfit's focal point.
Wedges are available in different materials. If you want a summery look and feel, look for a pair that has a jute or cork heel and some brown leather details. The couple should go well with dark and light blue denim. You may even combine the pair with a quintessential summer outfit. Look for a wedge that's not made using jute or cork if you are going to dress it up or wear one to a formal event.
Dress sandals are imperative for any fancy or lavish soirees or evening parties you may be hosting or attending this 2020 summer. These sandals blend the shape and class of high heels with the breathable summery sandals, resulting in a killer overall look. They go well with your evening outfits, particularly with dresses. Unlike high-heel shoes, these dress sandals would not make your legs look too long. Also, dress sandals complement wide-legged trousers pretty well, offering a streamlined appearance.
Embellished Flat Sandals
Embellished flat sandals are beautiful sandals ideal for a warm-weather, far-flung vacation. However, they could be just as handy at home during summer. Simply swap your closed-toe pumps with an embellished sandal, and you will be okay. The flat sandals, as the name indicates, don't have heels. If you want embellished sandals that add an inch or two to your height, you've got quite a few options. Embellished flat sandals are ideal for date nights, outdoor weddings, and graduation parties, and they would feel just as unique domestically as they would do abroad. The embellishments could be in the form of faux pearls, scarf wraps at the ankle area, paillettes, etc.
A peep-toe sandal or shoe is a variant of the open toe sandals available for women. Unlike the other sandals in the family, peep-toe sandals have a reasonably small cut out or opening at the front, which makes only the first toe visible. The remaining four toes are invariably covered. Women's sandal styles, such as slingbacks, pumps, and booties, usually sport the peep-toe design.
Despite being classified as "dress shoes," peep-toe sandals are quite versatile in their way. They could be worn to your workplace or when you're partying with your friends at a club. During winter, wear them with opaque tights to go with your outfit or add some zing to an otherwise neutral ensemble.
Peep-toes have been around for decades and were particularly popular during the 1940s. By the 1960s, they were nowhere to be found. Then during the 1970s and 1980s, peep-toe sandals made a comeback only to go downhill again during the mid-1990s. Peep-toe sandals have re-emerged again in recent times. They are expected to be in the trend in 2020 and for at least a few more years after that.
At times referred to as slide sandal or clog, mules are incredibly comfortable summer footwear for women. But just because they are healthy, it doesn't mean they aren't stylish. They are easy to wear and carry and could even be flat or like loafers. They can be cute additions to pretty much any outfit, thanks to their accentuated toes and miniature height. You can pair them with flowing summer dresses to skinny jeans to almost anything.
Mules have been around since forever. They underwent a revival during the 90s, and have remained sought after since then, particularly during summers. This footwear style comes in a range of designs – from wild and funky to the plainest stuff. Not to mention, they serve as solid transition shoes. The design is backless, with the heel height ranging from high to flat. Generally, a heeled, closed-toe design is referred to as a clog. Open-toe, flat styles are called slide sandals.
Mules usually come with either two thinner straps or one thick strap. The two-strap models could be buckled. There are also styles wherein the two straps could be crossing over one another. Often, the straps are leather, but you get synthetic strap options too. As mules use only belts to secure your foot, they are effortless to put on and take off.
if you're buying a new pair of sandals in 2020, make sure you buy a pair based on your actual requirements and not based on what's in trend. If you walk a lot, make sure you purchase something that's light and has a comfortable and grippy sole. If you'd like to feel the breeze in your feet and want a sense of security at the same time, flip flops will not cut it. During your shopping, keep in mine If your feet are wider than average to get the appropriate fit. In the end, it's all about striking the right balance between style and comfort. If you prioritize style over comfort, you may end up wearing the "stylish" pair of sandals only once or twice. Regardless, you must give your feet love and pampering because they are precious.
Women Shoes: A Simple (But Complete) Guide
Unlike clothing, shoes can go from season to season, year after year, and continue to look fashionable and in style. Not only are shoes a staple to a great wardrobe, but they can also be the crowning item in a stunning outfit, and can change the entire feel of your look, simply by going from boots to heels.
The strength of a woman is undeniable, and when she puts on her favorite pair of shoes, she feels like the superwoman she is. One thing you can be sure of when it comes to women's thought is that every woman wants to look good and to have that confidence and strength not only on the inside but also projected on the outside. Believe it or not, but foot ware plays a significant role in the determination of a woman; whether you're in 6-inch high-heels, flats, platforms, or wedges, a woman can't get enough of their shoes. You seem to want more and more every time. Studies have shown that the average woman has between 17-27 pairs of shoes. It is just an average remember that, and it's hard to find women that have never heard of "Carrie Bradshaw" the ultimate shoes and fashion girl from "sex and the city.". For decades many women have been trying to copy her style, although a fictional character she truly embodied this person that most women aspire to be, especially her to die for shoe collection. Let us explore some reasons why women are just head over heels for their shoes.
Confidence is your Armor
A woman's invisible armor is her confidence. Although mentioned above, you have to recognize how important faith is. When a woman armors herself with her beautiful classic pumps, knee-high boots, or thong slippers, she feels empowered with confidence, like she's ready to face anything the world will throw at her. The way people think makes a big difference in attitude, and if she feels impressive, chances are you will know it as well. She'll have her head up, back straight, let's go on to see how the right pair of shoes can improve posture.
Sitting up straight is something our parents have been telling us since adolescence but, did we really listen to them? Most of us probably didn't and paying for it now. When you wear the right shoes, it can help your posture tremendously. Many women recognize this, and it's also part of the reason women have so many shoes because every pair has a different purpose. Sometimes you see these women that have 6-inch heels on, and their back is perfectly straight. Now, that's a woman that has a fantastic posture.
It used to be a secret, but it's out there now, and we have to talk about it. Many women wear heels to perk up their bottoms. When it comes to loving shoes, this has got to be a great reason. Imagine you hear a pencil skirt, and it looks good, and after you put on your heels, your booty says hello to you. It's incredible how something so small can make such a big difference to a woman's confidence and how she looks.
Makes you look Taller/Shorter
It's no secret sometimes women just want to appear taller, an easy fix for this is beautiful high heels. What is there not to love about heels. On the other hand, if you want to look a little shorter if you are a tall girl, grab some flats and call it a day. Shoes are a lifesaver for those tough moments.
Long Long Legs
It's all about the legs; if you have long legs, you're already there but, if you don't, you might want to consider figuring what shoes you should be wearing to elongate your legs. Long legs make you look fantastic, and the right pair of shoes can make you have the illusion of long legs. Sometimes you have to fake it but just be on point.
One of the first things a woman will notice on another woman is their shoes. Which calls for a great conversation starter. Bonding overshoes can bring people together. Next time you walk past someone with fabulous shoes, compliment them you don't know where it'll lead.
Have a Complete Outfit
A pair of shoes can make magic happen; an incomplete outfit is a little bit underwhelming. Finding the right pair of shoes can complete an out. Whether it's boots, flats, heels, or pumps, you can always dress it up or down. Fashion is your creation. However, you want to dress casual or elegant just don't forget to complete the look with a great pair of shoes.
When you walk out of your house, make sure people know you mean business. Well, something along those lines. You want your style to reflect in your shoes. Maybe you aren't a heels everyday woman, but on the other hand, you love boots and flats. Showcase your style and let the world know who you are.
Make Your Outfit Look Expensive
Most women know how to make themselves look good and know how to elevate their outfit to look expensive, even if the cost was average. Women have an eye for fashion, and shoes enable you to have those options.
A big reason why women love shoes so much is that there is so much variety to choose from. There are shoes for every occasion you can think of. Want to go to a summer music festival, get yourself the most comfortable sandals or combat boots. Experiencing winter blues, that's comfortable boots will do the trick. Are you going out for dinner? Some classic high-heels are always there for the taking. Experiment with your shoes, there are so many to choose from.
Size doesn't matter
A little extra weight never hurt anyone; that's what they say. Well, if shoes could talk they would tell you the same thing also. Gaining some weight will not change your shoe size. Clothes, on the other hand, that's a different story. As for shoes, you can still own it on the catwalk. Shoes are very forgiving; you should always welcome forgiveness anytime in your home.
Another essential aspect to remember is that shoes don't discriminate your size. Whether a size zero or a size 30, beautiful shoes will look great on anyone without question, in this aspect, shoes are universal, almost like one size can fit all.
Shoes have the potential to be an invaluable commodity; just ask the men that collect sneakers. Women that recognize this will buy shoes projecting. It might be worth something one day, even if it's not their size. Sometimes a shoe line will have a limited shoe collection, and before you know it, it could quadruple in value in a few years. Don't sell it though, display it in your homes like a gallery or museum.
Women love shoes that will never go out of style, such as a classic heel. Seasons may come and go, but the perfect footwear will be accessible all year round. Those are the shoes that go with everything; mostly, a woman can have a pair last a lifetime and even pass it on to the next generation.
Your Shoes Tell a story
Women have a way about them that screams" express yourself." they wear their hearts on their sleeve in every aspect of their life. Let's say; You feel happy today; you might put on a bright pair of pumps. For the times when you want to add some drama to your outfit, maybe put on a bold color heel. When you leave your home, do it with purpose. What you wear today might inspire those around you to tell a style story of their own, maybe.
Amazing Retail Therapy
Every time a woman buys a pair of shoes, her dopamine level increases. It's a natural high that makes you feel good. Let us be honest here, and many women are buying themselves shoes not because they have but, on the contrary, they just want to. There's also so many to choose from; this means they'll be happy forever.
Women are like chameleons; you can adapt to anything that life throws at you. A sincere belief about shoes comes from the fact that woman can have many styles in their wardrobe and shoes is a big part of that. Some of these fashion icons that women look up to have paved the way for them to be more expressive and to take risks; because style is not one dimensional. Although you might not have 200 pairs of shoes, you keep a keen eye on new shoe trends all the time with magazines, shopping, and word of mouth. As we explored earlier, a great pair of shoes isn't just about feeling amazing on the outside but also plays a significant role in how you feel inside. Whether you tell the story of an ageless or elegant shoe or about the pump that makes you feel confident and comfortable, you're still talking about shoes. If women want to love their shoes just stare from afar, she knows exactly what she's doing. That shoe confidence is a real thing.
The Uniform Commercial Code abbreviated as UCC is one of the most comprehensive codes that address the most important aspects of commercial law. It is regarded as one of the most important developments ever made in commercial law in the US. The UCC provisions, revisions, and text are the product of experts of commercial law. The drafts are then submitted to the NCCUSL also known who collaborate with the ALI to ratify or reject the drafts or revisions. The commission is composed of qualified attorneys that include law professors, legislators, federal and state judges from all the states and territories of the United States (Anderson 1998).
These are not legal organizations but are quasi-public establishments. They meet to decide whether they should endorse new revisions of laws and regulations or send them back to the drafters with recommendations. The revision process often does lead to several draft documents that are all submitted to the Commissioners. It is the draft accepted by the commissioners that will be the recommended set of rules to be adopted by the states.
Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) History
The Uniform Law Commission (ULC)
The ULC was founded in 1892 and is intended to come up with constant commercial legislation. The ULC soon made a range of commercial laws that included the Uniform Stock Transfer and the Uniform Bill of Lading Act of 1909, the Uniform Warehouse Receipts Act in 1906 and the Uniform Sales Act in 1906. In 1940 the ULC was officially charged with drafting an all-inclusive code to guide all commercial transaction in the US. The ULC collaborated with the ALI in 1942 to come up with a commission that compiled commercial laws in one code that they called the Uniform Commercial Code (Anderson 1998). This was the code that was recommended for adoption to the states in 1951. Pennsylvania was the first of the states to enact the UCC and over the course of two decades the vast majority of the states also took it up.
The American Law Institute (ALI)
The American Law Institute and the ULC collaborated to come up with the Uniform Law Commission that produced the UCC. The ULC realized that trying to draft a comprehensive commercial code on its own was too huge of an undertaking and hence brought in the expertise and experience of ALI in 1942. Over a decade of working together, the two establishments met to draft the different aspects of the commercial code. Most of their meetings were funded by a grant from a foundation with banks, law firms, and other private business also chipping in.
UCC Amendments and Versions
The first version of the UCC came out in 1952 and since then there have been many versions and amendments. The Code has had major overhauls and revisions that it has become one of the most comprehensive commercial codes ever (Hawkland and Bailey, 1988). With regard to the state by state application, different sections of the UCC are enacted differently. Moreover, the states may use a different version of the UCC that may not correspond to the latest version by the ULC. For instance, the major revisions in articles 1, 2, and 2A that was made in the year 2000 have been adopted in many states though some are yet to adopt them.
It is important to note that the UCC is a recommendation or model rather than a law or regulation. As such the UCC does not have any force of law as the ULC can only recommend policy to the states. Nonetheless, every state has enacted some form of the UCC and made it part of their legislation (Quinn, 2013). For instance, we have the California Commercial Code which borrows heavily from the UCC and this code has the force of law in California. Moreover, since the states apply to closely related versions of the code, there is relatively little difference in the commercial codes. However, it is not uncommon to find huge variations in application. For instance, Louisiana never adopted the second article of the code. As such it is always important to confirm that the state’s commercial code when trying to find answers to commercial issues in real life situations.
The UCC Today
The UCC is currently managed and maintained by a Permanent Editorial board appointed by the Uniform Commercial Code. The permanent editorial board comes from both ALI and the ULC. The board was set up in 1961 and has been I charge of monitoring commercial law and then recommends revisions and amendments to the UCC as it deems necessary. The PEB also publishes an official interpretation of the UCC which the courts can use to understand the provisions of the UCC when making rulings and judgments. The UCC was initially established with funding from the Falk Foundation but now has access to UCC publication royalties which it uses to further the development, amendments, and revisions of the UCC drafts.
General Provisions – Article 1
Provides the general provisions, definitions, and principles of interpretation for all articles and transactions covered in the UCC. The last revision of the article was in 2001 though there have been a few other amendments designed to bring the article in line with reviews of other articles.
Sales – Article 2
The article regulated contracts for the sale of goods and is part of the original UCC code that came into effect in 1952. It was modernization and revision of the Uniform Sales Act of 1906 that had the stamp of approval of the NCCUSL. There was a revision that ALI and ULC recommended in 2003 but since the states were not interested in applying it, it was reversed leaving the 1952 version as the most recent version of the article. An important thing to note about article 2 is that it does not apply to sales of real estate or service contracts (Quinn, 2013).
In Pass v. Shelby Aviation, the estate of Pass and his wife brought a suit against Shelby Aviation for breach of implied warranties as set out in Uniform Commercial Code Article 2 codified in Tennessee. The defendant was accused of replacing the rear wing brackets of Mr., Pass’s plane with faulty parts during maintenance which had caused an accident that had killed him and his wife. Shelby argued that the transaction was primarily for services and not the sale of goods. The court held that the principle to be applied in the case was whether the predominant thrust of a mixed contract was the sale of goods or services. It was held that the service provided was mainly for the services and hence the motion to dismiss by Shelby was warranted.
Leases – Article 2A
Article 2A of the code was first added in 1987 and revised in 1990 and covers the leasing of personal property. According to the article, a true lease is when a person gives possession and the right to use goods to another for a fixed period of time in return for rent yet retains the title to the property. The article also deals with finance leases where the lessor supplies goods to the lessee as a form of financing.
In Hertz Commercial Leasing Corp. v. Dynatron, Inc. Hertz Commercial Leasing sued Dynatron Inc. for breach of a leasing contract and sought deficiency judgment on the basis of default on the part of the defendant. The plaintiff relies on Article 2A of the UCC as the basis for its suit. The defendant has negotiated for office equipment with another company for the lease of a copier. The agreement has designated the plaintiff as a secured party or lessor and the defendant as lessee according to the provisions of the UCC. The defendant did not make any payments and asked that the plaintiff collect the faulty machine. The machine was repossessed by the plaintiff and sold off. Since the machine was sold for less than a quarter the amount of the lease the plaintiff sued claiming deficiency judgment. The defendant offered his defense under article 2-302 of the UCC terming the lease unconscionable and hence unenforceable. The court ruled for the defendant under the UCC.
Negotiable Instruments – Article 3
The article directs negotiable instruments such as promissory notes, notes or checks that may have autonomous value due to being negotiable (Stone and Steinheimer, 1992). Any instrument that can be reassigned to another individual is negotiable and will be actionable against the original person that promised to make payment. It has been revised several times with the last of these amendments coming in 2002.
In Re Veal, 449 B.R. 542 (9th Cir. BAP 2011) the Veals wrote a promissory note to GSF Mortgage Corporation in 2006. In 2009 the Veal declared chapter 13 bankruptcy listing AHMSI as a secured creditor. The Veals sought a stay against AHMSI but Wells Fargo sought relief from the stay as the trustee for AHMSI’s asset-backed securities. Under the UCC article 3 provisions, the court held that Wells Fargo has a right to claim since the promissory note was transferred to them as a person entitled to enforce it under the definition of the UCC.
Collections and Bank Deposits – Article 4
The code is all about collections, checks, bank deposits, and the banking process including rules for automated interbank collections.
Schultz Food Company the plaintiff had an account with the defendant Wachovia Bank. Schulz refused to pay extra for the products and services the defendant used to prevent check fraud. The defendant made the plaintiff sign an agreement asserting that they would not have any liability should check fraud occur on his account. When a check by the plaintiff was stolen and paid by the defendant, Schulz demanded that the bank bear the loss but it refused. Cincinnati Insurance which paid a claim to the plaintiff sought to recover the amount from Wachovia and brought a suit under the provisions of UCC § 4-401(a) which charged their clients account for an altered check. It was held that Schulz could not depend on the UCC since there was no case for a contract of adhesion as he could have opened his account at any other bank and not have had to sign the deposit agreement.
Funds Transfers – Article 4A
The article that was first created in 1989 governs the rules for the receiving bank and the sender. The article was amended in 2012 to make it conform to federal law and associated regulations on electronic fund transfers (Quinn, 2013).
While the UCC does not deal with the issue of electronic funds transfers, the courts have made the reasoning from the concepts analogized therein. In Delbrueck & Co v. Manufacturers Hanover Trust Company, it was held that transfer of funds through the Clearing Interbank Payments System was irrevocable. According to the courts, the concepts of the UCC did not apply to the case but that the concepts therein such as checks being final once accepted could make a good case for these transfers being irrevocable.
Letters of Credit – Article 5
These are instruments of payment that are promises made by a provider of credit to a beneficiary on behalf of the applicant. These are normally dispensed by a bank to their customers to facilitate trading transactions. The bank will typically present a draft on behalf of the person receiving the payment.
In Philadelphia Gear Corporation, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Central Bank, Defendant-Appellant central bank issued credit to the tune of 4.5 million dollars to Philadelphia Gear Corporation who was to deliver unspecified machinery to United Machinery Services. A few months later United and Philadelphia’s relations soured and United refused to pay for goods it said were not ordered. Philadelphia sued claiming a declaratory judgment asserting that the drafts were enforceable and that he was entitled to damages for wrongful dishonor. Relying on the provisions of the UCC the courts found that Philadelphia should be compensated for wrongful dishonor given that he had delivered goods as specified in the contract.
Bulk Sales – Article 6
Under article 6 creditors of businesses selling merchandise from stock get protection from bulk sales risk (Tepper, 2016). The bulk sale refers to a situation in which a business sells a significant part of their inventory to a single buyer who then vanishes with the goods.
In Reed v. Anglo Scandinavian Corporation Dorothy Hansen sold a huge assortment of ski boots and skis to the Anglo Scandinavian Corporation. The defendant was declared bankrupt a few months later and now the trustee is seeking summary judgment. According to the plaintiff, the sale of merchandise is illegal under the California Commercial code which makes certain bulk transfers null and void. Article 6 of the code holds that any substantial bulk transfer is void and fraudulent against the original owner of the goods unless adequate notice of such transfer is given. The court held that any transfer even if it is as little as 6.3% is deemed substantial and hence the plaintiff was entitled to get summary judgment.
Documents of Title - Article 7
Last revised in 2003, the article governs titles for personal assets that may include bills of lading, warehouse receipts and any other documents of commercial trade. The article seeks to take care of problems that arise during the transfer of title during shipping and storage. The main documents are usually the bill of lading by the carrier and the warehouseman’s receipts.
In Davies Warehouse Co. v. Bowles, 321 U.S. 144 (1944) a public warehouse is the business that the state declares to be a public utility and hence is subjected to comprehensive regulation. These include all aspects of documentation that include the shipping and storage of goods.
Investment Securities – Article 9
The article last amended in 1994 offers an up-to-date legal structure and system governing the transfer of investment securities. It specifies a mechanism for holding and ownership of mutual fund shares, bonds, stocks, and limited partnership shares. It also sets out the duties and rights of the persons participating in the system (White and Summers, 2000).
In Hulse v. Consolidated Quicksilver Mining Corp, the plaintiff entered into a contract with his sister Hulse to sell his shares to her. However, while he proceeded to file the necessary papers the company refused to transfer the shares as expected. Using article 8 of the UCC the court held that the company had violated its procedures that allowed members to transfer their shares to anyone they pleased as long as it was at par value.
Secured Transactions - Article 9
The article last edited in 2010 governs any secured transactions that involve the use of the personal property for granting of credit. Each state has an office where one may file finance statements that disclose what interest they have in a secured property. The creditor may repossess and sell the property in the instance of the debtor defaulting on the debt (Quinn, 2013).
In John Giovanni Granata v. Edward F. Broderick, Jr. Granata retained the services of Acciavatti to work in a legal malpractice case against Broderick and Gather. Acciavatti got $10,000 upfront and was to get a contingency fee when the case was won. Granata won the case and was awarded $1,597,193. The Supreme Court was to make a decision on whether the fees that an attorney expects to receive might be secured under the UCC article 9 and be deemed account receivable. The court also sought to determine if the lender was in compliance with the requirements of the UCC in perfecting its security interest.
Texas has implemented the following Articles of the UCC:
Article 3: Negotiable Instruments
The articles do not apply to payment orders or money transactions governed by Article 8 or Article 4A. Article 9 will always be superior to Article 4 if there ever is a conflict between the two (Anderson, 1998). Nonetheless, the operating circulars and regulations of the board of governors of the Federal Reserves will be superior to any provisions in the article to the extent that they are inconsistent with it.
In Southwest Bank, Appellant and Appellee, v. Information Support Concepts, Inc., Appellee and Appellant No. 2-01-348-CV the court was to decide whether the proportionate responsibility principle of the Uniform Commercial Code Article 3 is applicable. According to Section 3.4 of the UCC, the law of negotiable instruments applies to that of conversion of personal property. Other than negotiation an instrument is also covered if it is taken by transfer from an individual without the authority to receive payment or enforce the instrument.
Article 4: Bank Collections and Deposits:
Deals with the liability of a bank when it comes to non-action or action with regard to items it handles for the purposes of collection, payment, or presentment. It typically varies depending on the location of the bank. In the instance of non-action or action at a separate office or branch of a bank, its liability will be determined by the law of place where the separate office or branch is located.
In American Dream Team v. Citizens State Bank, it was held that when there is a chargeback due to non-action then Section 4.214 of the UCC will apply. The UCC preempted any cause of action that the plaintiff had in terms of suing for compensation under breach of contract. The UCC authorized the defendant to effect a chargeback as soon as it noticed that the monies sent were counterfeit. The chargeback would also have been a legal action in terms of the contract entered into by the two parties.
Article 8: Investment Securities:
The article is applicable to similar equity or share interest that has been issued by an organization that operates under federal investment company law as an investment company. Investment company security will not include annuity contract, endowment, or insurance policy issued by an insurance company (Tepper, 2016).
Article 8 is yet to be used in Texan case law
The Uniform Commercial Code UCC an excellent guideline for commercial law and arguably one of the best legal frameworks ever. Regularly updated by experts, the UCC is always being improved and expanded to cover all manner of commercial issues. While the code does not have the force of law, the fact that it has been adopted and enacted in all states in the US means that it is excellent commercial code. In fact, it has been used to decide many commercial cases since it has been codified into the commercial law of the states. Going forward, it is only going to get stronger and even more relevant as more states adopt the provisions and recommendations of the Uniform Law Commissioners who head the UCC.
Anderson, R. A. (1998). Anderson on the uniform commercial code. St. Paul, MN: West Group.
Hawkland, W. D., & Bailey, H. J. (1988). Commercial paper. Santa Monica, CA: Herbert Legal Series.
Quinn, T. M. (2013). Quinns uniform commercial code commentary and law digest. Boston, MA: West Publ.
Stone, B., & Steinheimer, R. L. (1992). Uniform commercial code forms with practice comments. St. Paul, MN: West Pub.
Tepper, P. (2016). Law of contracts and the uniform commercial code. Place of publication not identified: Delmar.
White, J. J., & Summers, R. S. (2000). Uniform commercial code. St. Paul, MN: West Group.
In this article, I shall be discussing how regional and local tax strategies, especially those regarding property, income, value-added and inventory taxes inherently influence the supply chain design.
Twelve Angry Men: A Case Study in Negotiation Techniques
Choosing the right watch helps a lady to complete her outfits and reflect a great sense in your style. However, there are many types of watches one can choose from depending on the occasion you want to grace. Luckily, this style article is dedicated to helping women's select watches and buy the perfect watch for every opportunity. However, most watch brands have a wide range of luxury watches, casual watches, sport watches, military watches, dressy and fashion watches. Some watch brands women watches specialize in jewelry, meaning they are more expensive since some may even incorporate some gold or diamond.
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